1. It is well known that the components of traditional Chinese medicine are complex, including alkaloids, glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, flavones, etc. These active ingredients often exist in different parts of the medicine, such as ginsenosides in the cortex are higher than those in the core material, while the starch content in the core material is high. When the core material is crushed, it is easy to crush the cortex. Selective comminution (i.e. less grinding and more sieving) will lead to the formation of fragile substances into micro-powder first, while hard-to-comminute substances will become slag and throw away. At the same time, the volatile components in drugs will be removed with a large number of gases in the pneumatic grading, which is why the content of saponins and volatile components in ginseng and aloes will be greatly reduced when they are crushed by airflow. Rotor mill has high crushing temperature, low micro-crushing efficiency and large dust, so it can be used without thinking.
At the beginning of the design of the micro-grinder, the diversification and complexity of the ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine were considered. The multi-grinding and non-sieving method was adopted in the grinding process, and the third generation vibration grinding theory (selective grinding of large particles) was applied to avoid the segregation and loss of ingredients. The same is true of compound Chinese medicines. It only increases the difference of crushing degree of different medicines and the difference of proportion of different medicines which selectively crush to form waste products. Drug efficacy decreases due to component segregation and loss will vary depending on the drug and its active ingredients. Unit, integrated operation, minimizing the intermediate links, can significantly reduce drug pollution; fully closed operation can minimize drug loss and prevent pollution; non-graded operation adheres to all components of prescription medication, without loss of effective ingredients. This is not only in line with the trend of pharmaceutical development, but also in line with the requirements of prescription drug use.
2. Effective compaction crushing (improvement of biological applicability brought about by fine compounding) airflow crushing and rotor crushing are both unidirectional forces. The crushing force is not only related to the size and speed of the applied force, but also to the quality (weight) of the crushing receptor. If the crushing material is very small, the crushing effect will be poor. Because of its one-way impact force mode, the data on toughness and elasticity will yield in the crushing process, resulting in ineffective crushing. The crushing efficiency of traditional Chinese medicines is low because of the above characteristics of both animal and plant medicines. But as for mineral drugs, they are generally brittle and of high quality, and their grinding efficiency by air flow is comparatively high. Both micro-pulverizer and ball mill belong to compact crushing, but the impact acceleration of micro-pulverizer is more than 6 times of gravity acceleration and 1 times of ball mill.
Because the force mode of the compaction crushing mode is high acceleration impact + shear, the material is compacted and teared under the action of two-way composite force, the size of the crushing force is not affected by the quality of the material, and the material with small quality is also subjected to large force. On the same batch of Ganoderma lucidum, the dissolution of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides after micro-grinding by two different force modes showed that the dissolution of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides after micro-grinding by micro-grinder was 40% higher than that by air-flow grinding. There are also obvious differences in electron microscopic photographs. The grinding force will destroy the material lattice. No matter how fine it is, the crystal shape will not be destroyed by non-compact grinding (air flow grinding, rotor grinding).
Taking theophylline comminution as an example, the fineness of theophylline is increased after non-compact comminution, but the crystalline form adheres to the original state; the original crystalline form can not be seen by micro-pulverizer comminution, which is an amorphous particle complex, and its specific surface area is much larger than the former. When using this method to crush fibrous materials, it is easy to destroy the structure and fibers due to the intense contraction and tearing force, so that the moisture (including crystalline water), oil, volatile matter and gas in the structure are extruded, the void rate in the structure is reduced, and the compactness of the material is increased.
Because the material inside the tissue structure is extruded and adsorbed on the surface of the tissue debris, the viscosity of the particles increases. Under the intense compressive tearing force, the particles are kneaded and teared from time to time, and the substances adsorbed on the surface of the tissue structure migrate with each other, which promotes the oil and water components in the "biological surfactant" (common biological tissues contain substances with surfactant activity). Quality, such as saponins, proteins, etc.) acts as an emulsifying combination. We call it "solid emulsification". At the same time, with the destruction and refinement of the structure in the crushing process from time to time, under the action of compaction, kneading and tearing, and through the viscous action of material migration within the tissue, the refined fragments of different tissue structures form new combinations from time to time, which we call "fine compounding". On the basis of this combination, fine composite viscous particles will form a gathering combination under the condition of compaction force, which we call "microparticle clusters".
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